The Biblical festivals are known in Hebrew as ‘Moedim’; that is, ‘appointments’ with God. The festivals are considered prophetic along the following lines.
The Biblical Mosaic feasts, fasts and festivals are broadly outlined here:
Sabbath (Hebrew Shabbat) – The 7th day (the Hebrew word is derived from the word seven, sheva.) Rest, observed from sunset on Friday through to sunset on Saturday. The early church met together on the 1st day of the week, which started at sunset on Saturday. Shabbat is a weekly commemorative feast, remembering Creation and God’s rest on the 7th day.
The Annual Feasts which have been fulfilled:
Pesach, Passover (Most languages have some reference to Passover as the Paschal Feast, unlike English which adopted the word Easter from the Anglo-Saxon pagan festival of Eostre) Feast commemorating the slaying of the Passover lamb during the Exodus – 14th day of the first Biblical month, which is determined by the sighting of the new moon, and the readiness of the barley for harvest, fulfilled in the New Testament by the death of Jesus, our Paschal Lamb. Followed by.
The fast of unleavened bread – 8 days from the first day of Passover.
Yom haBikkurim, Firstfruits – Fulfilled in the New Testament when Jesus rose from the dead, the firstfruits from the dead (1 Corinthians 15:20), feast (without leavened foods)
The ‘omer’ count – the count of 50 days or 7 weeks) from firstfruits to Shavuot (it was during this count that Jesus was present with the disciples for 40 days after his resurrection, and the final ten days of waiting for the Holy Spirit to come at Pentecost. In Christianity, this period is known as ‘Eastertide’ or ‘Paschaltide’ or season, although there is no formal count.
Shavuot (Greek: Pentecost for 50) – the Feast of Weeks, the culmination of the Omer count. Traditionally viewed in Judaism as the giving of the Torah. Fulfilled in the New Testament by the giving of the Holy Spirit, who is writing the Torah on our hearts.
The Annual Feasts that have yet to be fulfilled:
Yom ha Teruah, The Feast of Trumpets (celebrated as Rosh haShanah the Head of the Year, or New Year in Judaism, after the tradition that the Creation occurred on the 1st of the 7th month.) on the first day of Tishri, determined by the sighting of the new moon. Represents the ‘Last Trump’ in end time prophecy.
Yom Kippur, The Day of Atonement – the most holy fast in the Biblical calendar. Represents the final judgement in end time prophecy.
Sukkot, The Feast of Booths or Tabernacles. A harvest festival which represents the Marriage Supper of the Lamb in end time prophecy.
The post-Mosaic Jewish festivals, Biblical although not commanded
Hanukkah – Dedication – a feast, commemorating the Jewish victory over the Hasmonean Greeks by the Maccabees, and the re-dedication of the Temple. Celebrated in Judaism as a festival of lights, commemorating a miracle where one day’s dedication oil lasted for 8 days. Whilst the miracle itself is dubious, God’s protection of the Jewish people and the Maccabee victory was truly miraculous. Without Hanukkah, Jesus could not have been born into an observant Jewish home.
Purim – Lots – a fast (the fast of Esther) and a feast, commemorating God’s protection over the Jewish people during their exile in Babylon.